Making redundancies will unfortunately be the harsh reality for many employers due to the impact of Covid-19. For those employers who, over the coming weeks and months, find themselves in the difficult position of having to making compulsory redundancies, it is crucial that they follow a fair process.

My colleague, David Roath, recently wrote an article about avoiding redundancies post lock-down. This article explores the various alternative options that may be available to employers for consideration in order to avoid the need to make employees redundant. It is important that employers consider the alternatives to redundancy before proceeding with dismissing an employee.

Unfortunately, however, there is little doubt that some businesses will simply not be able to survive the economic impact of Covid-19 and will be forced into making redundancies. I have also written a blog on “collective consultations” that may be of interest to you.

Redundancies – Key steps towards fair dismissals

An employee who has 2 years continuous service with an employer will be able to bring a claim for unfair dismissal at the employment tribunal if they believe that they have been dismissed unfairly. This article considers the broad steps employers will need to follow when making employees redundant. There are certain key steps which employers must follow to make a redundancy dismissal fair:


The employer must identify the genuine redundancy situation. In law, there are three types of genuine redundancy, which are:

  1. business closure (closure of the business altogether);
  2. workplace closure (closure of one of several sites, or relocation to a new site); and
  3. diminished requirements of the business for employees to do work of a particular kind.

The employer must first of all be satisfied that there is a genuine redundancy situation in line with one or more of a-c above. Employer’s should be careful not to mix redundancy with other reasons for dismissal, such as an employee’s performance, absence or disciplinary record. Employers will need to explain to those employees affected why there is a redundancy situation and why this means their role is at risk of redundancy.
A business closure will usually be fairly easy to identify. Many employers will be facing the harsh reality that their business will not survive the pandemic and will be forced to shut its doors and put everyone at risk of redundancy. A workplace closure can cover both relocation of a workplace and a simple site closure. Often, the more common redundancy situation is limb c), diminished requirements of the business for employees to do work of a particular kind. This can arise where the employer restructures their workforce. Employers may decide over the coming weeks and months that, due to a downturn in work, they now require less employees to do the work. Alternatively, there may be a similar amount of work but the employer requires less staff to do that work on the premise that it is seeking to make better use of its resources.

An employment tribunal will generally not interfere with the business decision to make the role redundant (unless it is alleged by the employee that there was a discriminatory motive behind the redundancy).
Therefore, the first step for employers is to identify the genuine reason for redundancy.


The employer must act reasonably and follow a fair process. A tribunal will consider whether the decision to dismiss an employee was within what is known as the range of reasonable responses available to that employer. The key elements of a fair redundancy process include:

A fair and balanced consultation process should allow the employee to comment, challenge, make suggestions and consider alternatives (if any) to redundancy. There are no prescribed timescales within which consultation should take place. However, a usual redundancy consultation process will involve 2-3 meetings with each employee as a minimum and sometimes more if required. Employers should remember that the shorter the consultation, the more likely it is that its fairness may be called into question. It is good practice for employers to allow an employee to be accompanied to a consultation meeting by a colleague or trade union representative.

Once the pool(s) have been established, the employer must then apply fair selection criteria to those in the pool(s). The criteria used should be objective and measurable. Employers need to be careful that the criteria used is not discriminatory (on the grounds of a protected characteristic) or too subjective. This can lead to claims for discriminatory and unfair dismissal. In additional, the application of the selection criteria must also be done fairly. Employees should then be consulted with about their scores and given an opportunity to ask questions (which, if they have been scored the lowest, they will most likely have). This is an important part of the consultation process.

Other alternatives to redundancy can include:

Employers should take specific advice if they are making contractual changes not allowed for in the employee’s contract of employment. If there is no alternative vacancy for the employee, or other alternative as set out above, then the employer can dismiss. The employee will in most cases be entitled to:

Fail to prepare…

Planning is vital for employers when undertaking a fair redundancy process. A well-planned redundancy process can reduce stress for both the employer and employee, and is likely to achieve a better outcome for all concerned. A disgruntled employee is more likely to consider issuing an employment tribunal claim if the process has been handled badly or rushed. Rather, if the employer follows a fair, transparent, informative and balanced consultation process, this will go someway to mitigate the risk of an employee issuing tribunal claims. Over the coming months I would encourage employers to take advice on following a fair redundancy exercise in order to achieve their goals.

If you are considering the possibility of making redundancies and would like some advice please contact a member of the Employment team.

SIGN UP to receive email notification when our dedicated “Coronavirus – Legal advice and guidance” page is updated as and when new/amended guidance is announced by government or other regulatory bodies.